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research on antenatal care pdf

Hence the social and cultural contexts of ANC delivery and uptake were explored together and compared and contrasted across the sites. The positive impact For primagravidae, pregnancy disclosure influenced timing of ANC. The use of qualitative methods, in combination with long-term data collection, enabled analysis of how a range of factors influences ANC attendance, rather than simply providing associations between social and/or economic variables and ANC attendance. In Ghana, generally, women initiated ANC in early pregnancy and, from the first visit, ANC was conducted in a problem-focused manner: health workers reportedly paid attention to women’s complaints and possible remedies. Department of Community Health, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, In spite of the concerns about gossip, embarrassment and witchcraft, it was possible to identify and interview women during early pregnancy. Women may not disclose early pregnancy to non-ANC health staff and this has potential implications for the delivery of contraindicated medications. Although women’s descriptions of ANC varied across and within the sites, on the whole, they did not recall receiving all WHO-recommended procedures (Table 1). Also linked to the authority of health staff, in Kenya, obtaining an ANC (or ‘birth’) card motivated attendance. In spite of the messages and reprimands that women experienced, healthcare workers’ advice was generally trusted and women claimed to follow their instructions. In of the studies, the To ensure that women attend ANC in early pregnancy a balance has to be struck between ensuring that women return for follow-up appointments during their pregnancy and an awareness of the maximum number of journeys to the health facility that they are able to afford. Pregnant women’s interactions with healthcare staff at ANC had varying implications for ANC attendance. Although primagravidae, particularly young women and adolescents, were less certain (as is elaborated below), generally, women became aware of their pregnancy as a result of one or two months of amenorrhea. services as compared to their counterparts [25]. between distance and attendance of ANC. The findings of this literature review could help in planning and developing strategies for utilization of antenatal care ANC among pregnant women. Fieldwork was carried out in urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Siaya District, Nyanza Province. As a result, the factor of distance gets strongly adhered to other In Kenya and Malawi, bicycle taxis were available, and in light of their pregnancy-related tiredness, women who could afford to pay, did so. Other indirect costs include the food that women purchased whilst waiting to be attended, either for themselves or their accompanying children. Being more accustomed to the pregnancy experience, their priority was obtaining the antenatal card and they were less concerned about monitoring the progress of the pregnancy. According to Developing ANC to meet their needs and care preferences, combined with messages about the dangers of complacency, may also promote earlier ANC amongst this group. For example, study from Department of Community Health, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, Affiliation Several studies conducted in different Women who were identified in early pregnancy were enrolled as case studies. More recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data illustrate that the variation in timing of ANC initiation across sub-Saharan African remains notable: for example, 11% of women started ANC in the first trimester in Ethiopia (2011) [14]; 16% in Nigeria (2008 [15]); 47% in Congo-Brazzaville (2005 [16]) and 55% in Ghana (2008 [17]). Data were collected in Mpemba and Madziabango, peri-urban areas of Blantyre District, and in rural areas of Chikwawa District, southern Malawi. A physical examination is The pregnancy-need Adolescents and young women were at particular risk of delaying ANC initiation and further research should focus on this group. Women described being injected and tested, but specific mentions of HIV testing were only made frequently in Malawi, and references to syphilis tests and haemoglobin analysis were rare overall. weeks later than those who were given support [27]. of all indicators of skilled maternal services. medications, use of alcohol, tobacco and other substances and countries have shown that factors like maternal age, number of Factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care among pregnant women: A literature review. Yes This paper has explored factors affecting ANC attendance across four settings that demonstrate two distinct patterns of ANC attendance. from Pakistan have found that access to obstetric care depends However, comprehensive analysis of DHS data from the 1990s suggested that less than 30% of pregnant women achieved this goal [12]. Although charges were not levied for ANC visits in Malawi, women were instructed to buy replacement generic health passports due to a shortage of ANC cards. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Yes and manage these complications in timely manner [5]. Nonetheless, across the research sites, survey data indicate two notably different patterns of ANC attendance: on the one hand, over half of Ghanaian women attend ANC in the first trimester of pregnancy and less than 10% initiate ANC in the third trimester; whereas, in Kenya and Malawi, 12% and 15% of women, respectively, initiated ANC in the first trimester and around 40% in the third trimester (Table 2). complications. From many women’s perspective, a lack of flexibility with regard to monthly scheduled follow-up appointments increases the total number of visits and therefore the total cost of ANC, which has particular impacts for women with limited resources and large distances to travel to health facilities.

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