hugo grotius just war theory
The just war tradition addresses the morality of the use of force in two parts: when it is right to resort to armed force (the concern of jus ad bellum) and what is acceptable in using such force (the concern of jus in bello).  The quintessential explanation of Just War theory in the ancient world is found in Cicero's De Officiis, Book 1, sections 1.11.33–1.13.41. ", with these two opposing categories being defined in terms of class, as is typical in the left.  Recently there have been calls for the inclusion of a third category of just war theory—jus post bellum—dealing with the morality of post-war settlement and reconstruction. For instance, I started with Aquinas because I learned about him a bit in college and am more familiar with him. Christian theory of the Just War begins with Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas. For this reason, Aristotelian just war theory is not well regarded in the present day. Grotius went to greater lengths than any before him to lay out the various just causes for war. As part of the Japanese campaign to take the northeastern island Honshu, Japanese military action was portrayed as an effort to "pacify" the Emishi people who were likened to "bandits" and "wild-hearted wolf cubs" and accused of invading Japan's frontier lands.. Just War doctrine had not been birthed from scriptural exegesis or reflection on the nature and will of God in the first place, but Grotius was the first to declare that it shouldn’t be. Aquinas argued that it was only in the pursuit of justice, that the good intention of a moral act could justify negative consequences, including the killing of the innocent during a war.. This just war tradition was well established by the 19th century and found its practical application in the Hague Peace Conferences and the founding of the League of Nations in 1920. The War and Peace section in the Basis of the Social Concept of the Russian Orthodox Church is crucial for understanding the Russian Orthodox Church’s attitude towards war. Happy, Support the Mission of the Hoover Institution, Battlegrounds: International Perspectives. On the battlefield, violence was only justified to the extent it was necessary. A few ennoble the virtues of the soldier while declaring their apprehensions for war itself.  Although the criticism can be made that the application of just war theory is relativistic, one of the fundamental bases of the tradition is the Ethic of Reciprocity, particularly when it comes to in bello considerations of deportment during battle. , A 2017 study found that the just war tradition can be traced as far back as to Ancient Egypt, "demonstrating that just war thought developed beyond the boundaries of Europe and existed many centuries earlier than the advent of Christianity or even the emergence of Greco-Roman doctrine." Grotius argued that our criteria for Just War must be independent of all religion. Mark Mattox writes that, for the individual Christian under the rule of a government engaged in an immoral war, Augustine admonished that Christians, "by divine edict, have no choice but to subject themselves to their political masters and [should] seek to ensure that they execute their war-fighting duty as justly as possible. Site by LOUDER media. Have you based this idea on a reading of any original source texts? However, I still think that the sources you are looking aren’t very well read in what Aquinas and Augustine thought. 26:52, Mt. This was a shift away from the inner religious realm of conscience that had been a prime concern of Vitoria toward the exterior and observable. …Since he had really removed any need for a religious element, Grotius made possible the move to a moral understanding [of war] independent of Christian belief. Lt. General William G. Pagonis (U.S. Army, Ret. Thanks. Thirdly, warriors must have the right intent, namely to promote good and to avoid evil. War was justified only as a last resort and only by the rightful sovereign; however, questioning the decision of the emperor concerning the necessity of a military action was not permissible. The purpose of the doctrine is to ensure war is morally justifiable through a series of criteria, all of which must be met for a war to be considered just. The just war theory prevailing for most of the last two centuries—that violence is an evil that can, in certain situations, be condoned as the lesser of evils—is relatively young. © 2020 by the Board of Trustees of Leland Stanford Junior University. It is obligatory to take advantage of all options for dialogue and negotiations before undertaking a war; war is only legitimate as a last resort. As an exception to this, Aristotelian just war theory permitted warfare to enslave what Aristotle called "natural slaves". society. The first work dedicated specifically to just war was De bellis justis of Stanisław of Skarbimierz (1360–1431), who justified war by the Kingdom of Poland with Teutonic Knights. For example, one may not attack innocents or kill hostages. Although, it is well known that Julius Caesar did not often follow these necessities. Clearly, the application of the term "defensive" war, or war "for the defense of the fatherland" in such a case would be historically false, and in practice would be sheer deception of the common people, of philistines, of ignorant people, by the astute slaveowners.  More broadly, conventions of war and treaty-making were part of the ius gentium, the "law of nations", the customary moral obligations regarded as innate and universal to human beings. You use the word “nation” in the first few paragraphs. Thanks for keeping me on my toes. A long discussion then ensues between the siblings, establishing criteria like proportionality (chariots cannot attack cavalry, only other chariots; no attacking people in distress), just means (no poisoned or barbed arrows), just cause (no attacking out of rage), and fair treatment of captives and the wounded. Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum justum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers. One of the most vexing questions for the framers of the Constitution was how to create a vigorous and independent executive without making him king. Nonetheless, he asserted, peacefulness in the face of a grave wrong that could only be stopped by violence would be a sin. ", The just war theory by Thomas Aquinas has had a lasting impact on later generations of thinkers and was part of an emerging consensus in Medieval Europe on just war. According to Aquinas, three requirements must be met: First, the war must be waged upon the command of a rightful sovereign. If one set of combatants promise to treat their enemies with a modicum of restraint and respect, then the hope is that other sets of combatants will do similarly in reciprocation (a concept not unrelated to the considerations of Game Theory). The just war tradition also considers the writings of various philosophers and lawyers through history, and examines both their philosophical visions of war's ethical limits and whether their thoughts have contributed to the body of conventions that have evolved to guide war and warfare. Grotius considered an entire hostile nation, with all its citizens, the enemy. Join the Hoover Institution’s In the early part of the First World War, a group of theologians in Germany published a manifesto seeking to justify the actions of the German government. This move strongly influenced later thinking about war. …even if we should concede that which cannot be conceded without the utmost wickedness, that there is no God, or that the affairs of men are of no concern to Him. “The sources from which wars arise are as numerous as those from which lawsuits spring,” Grotius observed. Nevertheless, Aquinas argued that violence must only be used as a last resort. At the beginning of the war, there is the discussion of "just conduct" appropriate to the context of war. Sorry. In self-defense, as long as there is a reasonable possibility of success. Hugo Grotius , also known as Huig de Groot (Dutch: [ˈɦœyɣ də ɣroːt]) or Hugo de Groot (Dutch: [ˈɦyɣoː də ɣroːt]), was a Dutch humanist, diplomat, lawyer, theologian, jurist, poet and playwright. The law of nations can help contending nations settle their disputes through negotiation, diplomatic conferences, arbitration, or even by lot or single combat. The School of Salamanca expanded on Thomistic understanding of natural law and just war. As if he would not all the rather lament the necessity of just wars, if he remembers that he is a man; for if they were not just he would not wage them, and would therefore be delivered from all wars.
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