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After Khalid left Iraq for Syria, Suwad, the fertile area between the Euphrates and the Tigris, remained unstable. The stragglers that the Muslims met along the way were either killed or taken captive. This category has only the following subcategory. Receiving news of preparations for a massive counter-attack, Umar ordered Muthana to abandon Iraq and retreat to the edge of the Arabian Desert. "[18] But the emissaries insisted that Persians had to choose between becoming Muslim, paying Jizyah or making war. 15,000 cavalry were divided among four divisions to be used as reserve for counter-attack and offensives. [19] Heraclius had instructed his general Vahan not to engage in battle with Muslims until his orders. [19] The flight of the elephants caused considerable confusion in the Sassanid ranks. Heraclius ordered his armies to retreat after a pact was signed with Kavadh. A vast number of the isolated elephant riders were the killed, while the rest retreated behind the main Persian line. Early Muslim archers were infantry archers who proved very effective against the opposing cavalry. Heraclius married his granddaughter to Yazdegerd III, in accordance with Roman tradition to seal an alliance. Through the gaps that had appeared in the foe's ranks as a result of the Sassanid advance, Rostam sent a cavalry regiment to capture the old palace where Saad the Commander-in-Chief of the Muslim forces was stationed. His death officially marks the end of the Sassanid royal lineage and empire. By this time, with the exception of Ctesiphon, Khalid had captured all of Iraq. [14] Thereafter, the Siege of Al-Anbar during June–July 633 resulted in surrender of the city after strong resistance. All four Muslim corps surged forward, but the Sassanids stood firm and repulsed repeated attacks. 15,000 cavalry were divided among four divisions to be used as reserve for counter-attack and offensives. He was succeeded by Boran, daughter of Khosrow II. As the elephants continued to advance, the Muslim infantry began to fall back. The fighting ended at dusk. After that, a full-scale invasion of the Sassanid Persian empire was planned by Umar to conquer his arch-rival entirely. The battle of Qadissiyyah was fought predominantly between Umar and Rostam, rather than between Sa'd and Rostam. …empire was decided in the battle of Al-Qādisiyyah (636/637)—on one of the Euphrates canals, not far from Al-Ḥīrah—during which the Sāsānian commander in chief, Rostam, was killed. The two armies met along the al-Atiq Canal, 30 miles east of Hira, and the bulk of both armies remained on both sides of the water for several months and occasionally launched scouting missions and raids. However, circumstances changed on the western front. These figures come from studying the logistical capabilities of the combatants, the sustainability of their respective bases of operations, and the overall manpower constraints affecting the Sassanids and Arabs. Khosrau fled and was killed. ", D. Gershon Lewental, "QĀDESIYA, BATTLE OF," Encyclopædia Iranica Online, available at. [21], The third day of the battle was the hardest for both armies. Many Persian soldiers were slain in the chaos, many escaped through the river, and finally the rest of the army surrendered. The fighting ended at dusk. The Battle of al-Qadisiyyah — 637 AD The beginning of the End for the House of Sassan. The video and its description text are provided by Youtube. The History of Al-Tabari: The Challenge to the Empires, Translated by Khalid Yahya Blankinship, Published by SUNY Press, 1993, The countries and tribes of the Persian Gulf, By, Shahanshah: A Study of Monarchy of Iran By E. Burke Inlow, Inlow, E. Burke, p. 13, Skepticism regarding Ya'qubi works were exist as he was accused with bias of Shiite sympathy regarding his works, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Kāndihlawī, Muḥammad Yūsuf ibn Muḥammad Ilyās al-Dihlawī, http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/qadesiya-battle, "ʿARAB ii.

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