albedo of water
That's why there is so much glare off of water — water has a high albedo. Land and liquid water have relatively low albedos (10 to 40 %), while ice and snow have higher albedos, typically between 70 and 90%. In Section 4, the results of one-year integrations of AFES with and without changes in sea sur- face albedo are compared and final remarks are given. And then feedbacks occur, changing levels of water vapor, long term albedo from ice melt, CO2 balance with the ocean, etc., each of which induce additional TOA imbalances and subsequent warming. In each of those section, the schemes used in other models are reviewed then the new implementation in AFES is described. Die Albedo (lateinisch albedo ‚Weiße‘; von lateinisch albus ‚weiß‘) ist ein Maß für das Rückstrahlvermögen (Reflexionsstrahlung) von diffus reflektierenden, also nicht selbst leuchtenden Oberflächen.Sie wird als dimensionslose Zahl angegeben und entspricht dem Verhältnis von rückgestrahltem zu einfallendem Licht (eine Albedo von 0,9 entspricht 90 % Rückstrahlung). Once feedbacks kick in their TOA imbalances are in addition to the original 3.7 W/m^2 forcing from doubling CO2. This sun-glint effect is regularly seen in satellite images near sunrise and sunset. For example, as water turns to ice the albedo increases, and as soot and dirt settle on fresh ice or snow, the albedo decreases. Unlike a windshield, which has a low albedo, nearly 90 percent of the light that hits water gets reflected immediately. 2. The albedo of clouds, snow, and ice-covered surfaces is around 0.5–0.8, that of fields and forests is 0.03–0.3, and that of water is 0.02–0.05 except when the angle of incidence becomes nearly parallel to the water surface. As solar altitude decreases, the reflectance of the direct beam increases. albedo according to Hollman  and Payne , but Powell and Clarke  found backscatter to contribute up to 0.03 to the albedo. Albedo, or the amount of sunlight reflected by an object, can vary by the season or by other factors. Varying albedo, due to water surface, is currently not incorporated in PV yield simulation software. Parametrizations of albedo of ocean water and sea ice are described in Section 2 and 3, respectively. Multiple factors and processes can change the albedo of a surface over time. Darker surfaces such as water, forests or asphalt have a much lower albedo and more of the sun's energy is absorbed. Interestingly, the surface of the ocean is mostly dark but becomes very reflective when the sun is low in the sky. The other 10 percent of the photons that hits the water is absorbed and undergoes heat transfer. " The Fresnel laws of reflection at a water surface predict that the reflectance of a light beam increases with angle of inci- dence. Table 5.1 shows the albedo of a water surface as a function of the angle of incidence.
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